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The Five Characteristics of Successful Innovators

There is not much agreement about what makes an idea innovative, and what makes an innovative idea valuable. For example, discussions on whether the internet is a better invention than the wheel are more likely to reveal personal preferences than logical argumentation. Likewise, experts disagree on the type and level of innovation that is most beneficial for organizations. Somestudiessuggest that radical innovation (which does sound sexy) confers sustainable competitive advantages, butothersshow that “mild” innovation – think iPhone 5 rather than the original iPhone – is generally more effective, not least because it reduces market uncertainty. There is also inconclusive evidence on whether we should pay attention to consumers’ views, with somestudiesshowing that a customer focus is detrimental for innovation because it equates to playing catch-up, butothersarguing for it. Even Henry Ford’s famous quote on the subject – “if I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said fast…

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Srimad Valmiki Ramayana is an epic poem of India which narrates the journey of Virtue to annihilate vice. Sri  Rama is the Hero and aayana His journey. We in India believe that Sri Rama lived in Treta Yug, millennia BC and we are presently concerned with what Srimad Valmiki Ramayana tells us, rather than when it was told.
This epic poem Ramayana is a smriti which is translated as "from memory". Given the antiquity of Srimad Valmiki Ramayana, there have been some interjected verses. Sometimes these verses can be contradicting. However, scholars, grammarians, historians have put lot of effort to standardize the original text, by verifying various manuscripts available from various parts of India, thus trying to stabilize and save the text from further contradictions. An example of this effort is the critical edition of Srimad Valmiki Ramayana. This site aims to study various versions of Srimad Valmiki Ramayana and arrive at a version of Ramayana that is most relevant to modern times. 
Srimad Valmiki Ramayana is composed of verses called Sloka, in Sanskrit language, which is an ancient language from India and a complex meter called Anustup. These verses are grouped into individual chapters called Sargas, wherein a specific event or intent is told. These chapters or sargas are grouped into books calledKaandas where Kaanda means the inter-node stem of sugar cane, or also a particular phase of the story or an event in the course of story telling.
Thus the structure of Srimad Valmiki Ramayana is arranged into six Kaandas or Books, and they are:
  1. Bala Kanda ( Book of Youth) [77 chapters]
  2. Ayodhya Kanda (Book of Ayodhya) [119 chapters]
  3. Aranya Kanda (Book of Forest ) [75 chapters]
  4. Kishkindha Kanda (The Empire of Holy Monkeys) [67 chapters]
  5. Sundara Kanda ( Book of Beauty ) [68 chapters]
  6. Yuddha Kanda ( Book of War ) [131 chapters]
While stabilizing the original text of Ramayana, historians surmised that portions of two Books [Kaandas], namely Book I, Bala Kaanda and Book VII, Uttara Ramayana (not listed above) are later additions - "The first and the last Books of the Ramayana are later additions. The bulk, consisting of Books II--VI, represents Rama as an ideal hero. In Books I and VII, however Rama is made an avatara or incarnation of Vishnu, and the epic poem is transformed into a Vaishnava text. The reference to the Greeks, Parthians, and Sakas show that these Books cannot be earlier than the second century B.C......"[ The cultural Heritage of India, Vol. IV, The Religions, The Ramakrishna Mission, Institute of Culture ].
However Book I, Balakanda is considered to be an original version except for some injected stories. Story starts from the fifth chapter of Book I, and tradition demands it to be read with the others. This stipulation is not obligatory to Uttara Kaanda, a later kaanda, wherein Sita's expulsion to forest takes place. Theologists worship Sri Rama as a God incarnate, philosophers make him the philosophical Absolute, while at the same time, materialists, condemning the above, appreciate the lyrical values of Ramayana, but as a great devotee-singer said "Whoever calls you in whatever way, you are that One". 
Ramayana contains 24,000 verses [sloka] arranged into numerous cantos [sarga] which are contained in 6 books as mentioned earlier. Each chapter, sarga, will be given briefly in english prose at its start and each verse will be rendered into Anglo-Sanskrit transliteration using ITRANS transliteration scheme developed by Avinash Chopde. Each verse will be followed by the Word by Word meaning followed by its gist and explained based on theism, culture, literature as appropriate. The numbering of each verse will be in the format Book-Canto-Verse. We are also providing Verses in Devanagari Unicode and Roman fonts for easier readability. The authors would like to express their appreciation to Avinash Chopde for developing ITRANS scheme.
This Valmiki Ramayana in Sanskrit is being translated and presented by Sri Desiraju Hanumanta Rao (Bala, Aranya and Kishkindha Kanda ) and Sri K. M. K. Murthy (Ayodhya and Yuddha Kanda) with contributions from Durga Naaga Devi and Vaasudeva Kishore (Sundara Kanda); Smt. Desiraju Kumari; Smt. K. Rajeswari, with all enthusiasm and devotion to classical literature of India, with humble and due respect to elders, pundits and to all those who respect Srimad Valmiki Ramayana the epic poem.

We have started work on rendering Sanskrit verses into audio, an idea given by Prof. (Dr.) Sravan Goparaju. Following people are contributing to this effort:
Bala Kanda - Dr. (Mrs.) V. Roja Ravindra
Ayodhya Kanda - Smt. V.N.K. Latha
Aranya Kanda - Smt. V. Vasundhara
Kishkindha Kanda - Smt. Sujatha Srinivas Goparaju
Sundara Kanda - Smt. Aswini Ram Tulluri
Yuddha Kanda - Sri. K. M. K. Murthy
Audio mixing - Dr. V.S. Ravindra (currently Bala Kanda), Sri. V.S. Sailendra (currently Aranya Kanda)
The verse below is recited at the beginning of any auspicious task. It invokes the all pervading God.

shuklaambaradharam vishhNum shashi varNam caturbhujam |
prasanna vadanam dhyaayet sarvavighnopashaantaye || 

"The One Who is adorned with a white garment, Who is All-Pervading, Who is bright as a full moon, Who has four arms, and Who has a pleasant smiling face, may be meditated upon to extinguish all obstacles."

aapadaam apahartaaram daataaram sarvasaMpadaam.h |
lokaabhiraamam shriiraamam bhuuyo bhuuyo namaamyaham.h ||

"I bow again and again to Sri Rama Who removes (all) obstacles, grants all wealth and pleases all."
This is a salutation offered at the start of reading any scripture as per tradition. This prayer is for removing all obstacles encountered. The prefix Sri to Rama indicates that Rama is always accompanied by Sri, His consort Seetha in the form of goddess Sri Maha Lakshmi. 

For complete story please visit:
Download Books here: Ramayana by Valmiki



The Picture Book of Ramayana

Valmiki Ramayana

Sri L Ananta Ramarao
Each sloka is available in ITRANS, Devanagari or Roman transliteration. Fonts need to be downloaded for the last two formats. Word meanings in english and an english translation for each sloka are given. The work is still in progress.


Ramayana on

The complete Valmiki Ramayana is available here in XDVNG devanagari, ITRANS, or as devanagaripostscript files. The navigation bar greatly facilitates use of the text. The complete Ramacharitamanasa is also available in ISCII, ITRANS, CSX, PS or XDVNG formats. Links to other interesting sites are given.Definitely worth a visit.

Srimad Ramayana: The Travels of Rama by Valmeeki Muni
Translated by Karnamrita Dasa, 1997. English translation of Ayodhya Kaanda available. This is part of the ISKON group of sites.

Multilingual Ramcharitamanas: On this website one can Read the Book in devanagari, Search for words or specific verses, use the PowerBrowse feature, download and print the text, and do much more.


Ramayana on

Well-organised chapter-wise english summaries of the Ramayana.

Versions of the Ramayana

Has a map of India with the various versions of the Ramayana marked on it according to geographicalpopularity.


Lessons from Ramayan

Rama and the Ramayana: Lessons in Dharma

Ramayana - A Picture Gallery

The Ramayana - an enduring tradition

The Ramayana: A "Telling" of the Ancient Epic

Understanding Hinduism - Ramayana